Ancient Mesopotamia, often referred to as the cradle of civilization, was once home to some of the most influential cities in human history. Here the first human civilizations were taking the earliest steps from hunter-gatherer societies into settled community. In this region, some of the most important inventions occurred that would shape mankind. The wheel, written language, the idea of minutes, hours and seconds, and many other aspects of modern daily life began fromto the ancient Mesopotamian civilizations.
First Civilization on Earth: Sumerians from Ancient Mesopotamia
The empire united Akkadian Assyrian and Babylonian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. The Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon of Akkad. Akkad is sometimes regarded as the first empire in history, though the meaning of this term is not precise, and there are earlier Sumerian claimants. After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, the people of Mesopotamia eventually coalesced into two major Akkadian-speaking nations: Assyria in the north, and, a few centuries later, Babylonia in the south. Nimrod's historical identity is unknown or debated, but Nimrod has been identified as Sargon of Akkad by some,  and others have compared him with the legendary Gilgamesh , founder of Uruk.
The First Civilization on Earth: Sumerians from Ancient Mesopotamia
The Sumerians and Akkadians including Assyrians and Babylonians dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history c. Later the Arameans dominated major parts of Mesopotamia c. Mesopotamia became a battleground between the Romans and Parthians, with western parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeral Roman control. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10, BCE. It has been identified as having "inspired some of the most important developments in human history, including the invention of the wheel , the planting of the first cereal crops , and the development of cursive script, mathematics , astronomy , and agriculture ".
Sumer was an ancient Chalcolithic civilization that saw its artistic styles change throughout different periods in its history. Although the historical records in the region do not go back much further than ca. Here, three separate cultures fused—the peasant Ubaidian farmers, the nomadic Semitic-speaking pastoralists farmers who raise livestock , and fisher folk. It also allowed for a much greater population density, which required an extensive labor force and a division of labor with many specialized arts and crafts. An early form of wedge-shaped writing called cuneiform developed in the early Sumerian period.